Koreas Gain UN Sanctions Exemption to Survey Railways
November 23, 2018 10:36 PM Associated Press (source)
Koreas Gain UN Sanctions Exemption to Survey Railways
November 23, 2018 10:36 PM
SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA —
South Korea said Saturday that the United Nations Security Council granted an exemption to sanctions that will allow surveys on North Korean railroad sections the Koreas want to connect with the South.
The surveys would require the South to bring to the North fuel and a variety of goods, including possibly cars to test on northern tracks.
The Koreas plan to hold a groundbreaking ceremony by the end of the year on an ambitious project to connect their railways and roads as agreed by their leaders. But beyond surveys and tape-cuttings, they cannot move much further along without the lifting of U.S.-led sanctions against North Korea, which isn't likely before Pyongyang takes firmer steps toward relinquishing its nuclear weapons and missiles.
South Korea ahead of US
The plan to modernize North Korea's outdated railways and roads and reconnect them with the South was among many agreements reached between North Korean leader Kim Jong Un and South Korean President Moon Jae-in, who met three times this year amid a diplomatic push that eased tensions over the North's nuclear program. Kim also met with President Donald Trump in Singapore in June, when they issued a statement about a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula without describing how and when it would occur.
North Korea insists that sanctions should be removed first before any progress in nuclear negotiations. There's also unease between the United States and South Korea over the pace of inter-Korean engagement, which Washington says should move in tandem with U.S.-led efforts to denuclearize the North.
South Korea initially said that the joint surveys of North Korean railroads wouldn't violate U.N. sanctions and had hoped to start them in October. Seoul later said that Washington had different views and the two sides had discussed the matter in a newly launched working group.
Long, expensive project
Even if the North takes concrete steps toward denuclearization and gains sanctions relief, experts say updating North Korean rail networks and trains, which creak slowly along the rails that were first built in the early 20th century, would require a massive effort that could take decades and tens of billions of dollars.
U.N. sanctions against North Korea have strengthened significantly since 2016 as Pyongyang stepped up its weapons tests. The measures now include trade bans on "dual-use" technology that could potentially be used for weapons development, transport vehicles and machinery and import caps on fuel. Washington's own sanctions against Pyongyang restrict an even broader range of economic activities and target a larger list of companies and individuals.
南韓（South Korea）於週六（編按：2018 年 11 月 17 日）表示，聯合國安理會（United Nations Security Council，UNSC）已准予(grant)在北韓（North Korea）鐵路區段的探勘(survey)豁免(exemption)權，以達成兩韓聯繫彼此的需求。
這項針對北韓老舊(outdated)鐵公路進行現代化，並與南韓鐵公路再次連結的計畫，是北韓領導人金正恩（Kim Jong Un）與南韓總統文在寅（Moon Jae-in）於今年（編按：2018 年）三度會晤時達成的眾多協議之一，會晤的目的在於透過外交的(diplomatic)推動，和緩北韓核武計畫所造成的緊張情勢。金正恩同時也在 6 月與美國總統川普（Trump）於新加坡（Singapore）會面，並發表(issue)朝鮮半島(peninsula)無核化聲明，卻未提及確切的做法與時間。
北韓堅持在核能談判(negotiation)有任何進展前，必須先解除制裁，而美國與南韓雙方對兩韓間的協議(engagement)進程也存有憂慮(unease)，因華府（Washington）表明須協同(in tandem with . . .)以美國為首的勢力對北韓展開無核化(denuclearize)行動。
南韓原先稱與北韓的聯合鐵路探勘並無違反(violate)聯合國制裁，並期望能在 10 月展開。首爾（Seoul）後來又稱華府對此意見分歧，而雙方已於最近啟動(launch)的工作小組中討論此事。
即使北韓對去核化採取具體(concrete)措施，並獲得解除制裁，專家們卻認為，北韓若要更新早在 20 世紀初就已興建，如今只能緩慢循著鐵軌勉強運作(creak)的鐵路網與火車，勢必得大費周章，且將耗時幾十年並花費數百億美元。
聯合國對北韓的制裁行動自 2016 年以來因平壤當局加快(step up)了武器試驗而大幅增強。目前制裁措施(measure)包涵了對具備雙重(dual)用途的技術下達的貿易禁令，這些技術可能用於武器研發、車輛器械(machinery)運輸及燃料進口額度(cap)等方面。華府針對平壤的制裁範圍甚至擴及更廣泛的經濟活動，並以為數更多的公司和個人為目標(target . . .)。
grant [grænt] (v) 給予，提供；許可，答應；承認，姑且承認；資助 * 本字也可作名詞，常見意思為「（尤指政府為特殊目的給予個人或組織的）撥款，補助金」
exemption [ɪg`zɛmpʃən] (n) 解除、免除；免（稅）（+ from） * exempt [ɪg`zɛmpt] (v) 免除，豁免（責任、付款等）／(a) 被免除（義務或付款）的；被豁免的
survey [`sɝve] (n) 調查，探勘，全面的考察；概觀，概論 * 本字亦常作動詞，重音則在第 2 音節，發音為 [sɚ`ve]，意指「俯視，眺望，環視；全面考察（或研究）」
tape-cutting (n) 剪綵
sanction [`sæŋkʃən] (n) 認可；批准；國際制裁（+ against） * 本字有一常見片語 "to impose sanctions on . . ."「對 . . . . . . 實施制裁」；也常作動詞，意即「認可；批准；對 . . . . . . 實施制裁」
relinquish [rɪ`lɪŋkwɪʃ] (v) 放棄；撤出；棄絕；交出，讓與（+ to）
issue [`ɪʃu] (v) 發行；發布；發給，配給（+ to），核發，在本文中意指「頒布」 * 本字也常作名詞，指「發行（物）；一次發行量；（報刊）期號」或「問題；議題」
unease [ʌn`iz] (n) 不安；憂慮 * 本字由表示「不，非，無，相反」的字首 "un-" 和名詞 "ease"「舒適，安逸，自在」組成
engagement [ɪn`gedʒmənt] (n) 諾言，保證；協議 * engage [ɪn`gedʒ] (v) 保證；答應；從事，參加
in tandem with something (prep phr) 一併；聯合，串聯；協同 * tandem [`tændəm] (n) 兩匹馬前後縱列拉的雙輪馬車；前後雙人自行車／(a) 一前一後的；串聯的；前後有座位的
violate [`vaɪə͵let] (v) 違背，違反；侵犯
launch [lɔntʃ] (v) 使（船）下水；發射；投擲；使升空；開辦；發起；使開始從事 * 本字也可作名詞，指「（船的）下水；（火箭的）發射」或「啟動儀式；發布會，發表會」
creak [krik] (v) 發出咯吱咯吱聲；（吱吱嘎嘎地）勉強運轉，緩慢行進
cap [kæp] (n) 原指蓋，罩，套，然在本文中指（經費等的）最高限度及額度
Check your vocabulary!
Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase from the list above. Make necessary changes. After you finish, highlight the blanks to reveal the hidden answers.
1. Students with a qualification in administrative law have exemption from this course.
2. Economic sanctions will only be lifted when the aggressor nation withdraws its troops.
3. The dictator does not intend to relinquish power.
4. The security lapses have caused widespread unease amongst the public.
5. Most diplomats are constantly trying to beat the clock to the next official engagement.
6. These cities grew in tandem with the commercial expansion of their hinterlands.
7. The police have launched an investigation into the incident.
8. He became aware of a creaking sound.