Algal Overload Infects Global Waterways

藻類過度成長,影響全球水道

 

Taken in October 2011, the worst algae bloom that Lake Erie has experienced in decades. Record torrential spring rains washed fertilizer into the lake, promoting the growth of microcystin producing cyanobacteria blooms. (more on Wikipedia)

 

Algal overload is common in waterways worldwide caused by fertilizer runoff and poor sewage management.

全世界水道都有藻類過度成長現象,主要是肥料徑流與不良的廢水處理引起。


 最新消息

自學包裹(Self-Study Package)中級第82期與中高級第93期上線了!

XXX中級第82期簡介

在臺灣,慶祝父親節的日子是取其中文諧音且又好記的八月八日,但在美國,父親節則是在六月慶祝,想知道為什麼美國人在六月慶祝父親嗎?接下來的聽力就會得到答案喔!
不過身為父親照顧孩子並不是只有人類獨有的行為,在陸地上與海洋裡也有很多偉大的動物爸爸們肩負起育兒的工作,牠們的辛苦程度可不輸給人類呢!在聽力後面的閱讀文章裡可以了解自然界的動物爸爸們如何照顧與養育下一代。
最後,提供一個簡單的食譜,親手做的蛋糕不僅爸爸會覺得很窩心,還可以全家一起享用!

中高級第93期簡介

讓大家久等了,自學包裹改版後終於再度登場!全新的自學包裹將著重於專業英語(English for Specific Purposes)。而本學期首先推出的主題為科技英語!

科技英語的第一個單元將和大家介紹和科技有關的產品及課程,一起來學習吧!

◎ 我的英文學習秘笈

在外商公司學習英文 xxxxx沈嘉佑

因為自己目前在外商公司上班,因此想分享自己在這個環境下的學習經驗;由於是一家半導體科技公司,其實很多專業名稱以及術語在剛開始並不了解,常常需要透過公司轉友網站查詢,而在這過程中各種英文解說講解真的對我這樣一個英文不是太別好的學生有困難。

平常在公司書寫Email需要使用英文,雖然在一般交談以及開會過程中是以中文作為討論,但在報表分析以及製作相關文宣品,甚至是活動結案時,因為要報告給整個亞太區的老闆,英文是絕對需要的;再來是公司中的全英文的演講以及教育訓練,其實多少意識到自己需要持續加強各種聽、說、讀、寫的能力,好增加自己在國際競爭力之下能保有一定的國際化程度。

我自己第一件事就是慎重的閱讀以及撰寫每封郵件,雖然口語但正式,除了讓自己快速了解商業文件中的各種用法,也是自己訓練在全英文文件中快速閱讀並吸收的能力,同時也訓練使用英文文字表達意思,在正式報告以及文件中嘗試清楚明瞭的用字語文法的正確,而在一般聊天或內部小信件則練習口語用法,盡力去提升讀寫的能力。

在活動以及技術的教學,大約從一月開始多次在舉辦的活動以全英文講解,除了活動現場有眾多外國人之外,也訓練自己以英文表達專業能力以及知識,雖然在嘗試過後發現真的很困難,但我相信多開口有用,並且能訓練以英文邏輯思考的速度和調理分析,增加流利度與思考性。

最後我自己有在努力增進聽力,當然除了內部教育訓練的課程之外,我也推薦大家一個網站http://www.cnn.com/studentnews/,是CNN針對國際學生的節目,一天10分鐘,內容為國際新聞或者一些新知識新科技,用字與語調上並不會太難與複雜,非常適合非母語國家學生聆聽,我想這對於增進英文能力是非常有幫助的。

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 E-Freeway主題介紹

feature of the week

PodBean 是個集結各類豐富主題的Podcast集合網站,學習者可以針對個人有興趣的主題做搜尋,主題包含教育、喜劇、科技、流行、健康、食物、家庭、新聞等等,確立了符合自我需求的網站,就可以訂閱,養成時常聆聽的習慣,一定可以有效增強聽力能力喔!

來看介紹 | 直接進入網站


Members Only資源介紹

每個人都知道找工作要先寫好履歷,但撰寫一份的履歷和求職信有哪些要點和格式要注意,才能獲得面試主管的青睞,這樣的問題總是讓求職者一個頭兩個大。因此本系列希望藉由讓各位了解如何編排一封正式的求職書信,以及撰寫這類書信應注意的小細節,並且還提供範例,讓學習者從中瞭解、掌握撰寫的要點!


如果可以,儘可能多參加口語課程,多增加與學習者及老師的互動,而在考試的時候,請仔細聆聽面試者或試題所指示的方向去做回答或做相關議題的回饋並提供個人意見,如果不知如何回答時,請勿驚慌,只要繼續仔細聆聽接下來的題目,試著做回答,不要浪費可以回答的機會。在平常練習時,也請盡可能創造可以自我練習的機會喔!

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 館藏介紹

Oxford Business English Skills: Effective Presentations


索書號:HF5718.22 / C6z / 1995 / ac.1
內容簡介:
This video-based coursebook helps to improve language and communication skills in specific business areas.
《Effective Presentations》 teaches the skills needed to make clear, well-organized presentations. Each of the nine free-standing units focuses on a specific area such as structuring the presentation, making a good introduction, and handling questions effectively.


 英語宅急便     

Rosanne Skirble
August 06, 2014 2:13 PM

This week 400,000 people in Toledo, Ohio, could not drink the water. The city’s water supply was polluted with a toxin linked to the overgrowth of algae. A pea green scum settled over the city’s water intake pipes. For 72 hours the residents relied on handouts of bottled water, which one woman said was stressful. “I have four children and dogs at home," she said, as she picked up free water. “I wanted to make sure we had enough water to brush our teeth and be able to drink it.”

藻類(algae)過度增生而產生的有毒物質污染了供水系統(water supply),美國俄亥俄州托雷多市(Toledo, Ohio)本周有四十萬人無水飲用。青豆色(pea green)殘渣(scum)沉積在入水口的管道。已有72小時的時間,當地居民生活必須依賴瓶裝水的配給(handout)。一位正領取免費水的女性表示,她感到很緊迫(stressful):「我家中有四個小孩,還養狗,我必須確保我有足夠的水能刷牙和飲用。」

Toledo gets its water from Lake Erie, which is the source of fresh water for 11 million people in the American Midwest.

Lake Erie is by no means unique. Algal overload is common in waterways worldwide caused by fertilizer runoff and poor sewage management. Excessive algae deplete oxygen in the water and kill fish says Laura Johnson, a research scientist at the National Center for Water Quality at Heidelberg University in Tiffin, Ohio.

這次受藻類影響的伊利湖(Lake Erie)並不是(by no means)個案。水道中的藻類生長過量(overload)是全球性的問題,主因是肥料徑流(runoff)與欠佳的汙水處理(sewage management)。藻類過多會耗盡(deplete)水中的氧氣,讓魚兒死亡。

“It also becomes a problem when the type of algae that are growing is a cyanobacteria that can produce toxins," she said. "And when that happens then we have issues, because then those toxins can be in places like our drinking water, or we can get in contact with it if we’re trying to swim there.”

一位研究人員表示:「藍綠藻(cyanobacteria)的問題是它會產生有毒物質。如果藍綠藻大量增生的話,我們就遇到大麻煩了(we have issues),因為這些有毒物質可能會進入我們的飲用水(drinking water),在那游泳也會接觸到(get in contact with)毒素。」

Toxins can damage the liver and nervous system. Global warming is making the problem worse. Changing weather patterns produce stronger, more intense winds and storms which move more nutrients off the land. Johnson says in Ohio the algal season is a long one.

這些毒素對肝臟和神經系統(nervous system)會造成傷害。這問題也因全球暖化變得更為棘手。氣候型態改變產生了強大而密集的風雨,讓更多的養份(nutrient)被帶離了陸地。研究人員表示,俄亥俄州的藻類增長旺季還很漫長。

“The bloom that’s been happening most recently, I mean it’s just started. That’s part of the reason it’s so scary for Toledo right now is because this is the very beginning of the season," she said. "Most of the bloom occurs usually, and gets the largest, in September and October.”



Satellites track algae outbreaks
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tracks the bloom from space and uses the satellite data to track the bloom and estimate their concentration, says NOAA oceanographer Richard Stumpf. “We can’t tell you if it’s toxic, but we can tell you if it’s there and how much there is.”
This helps alert scientists and public officials to take action. Stumpf says to better manage the problem NOAA is also gathering data on the phosphorous that drives the bloom.

“It’s only the spring phosphorous that creates the bloom in the summer," he said. "Knowing that means that you can now create a strategy for how do you modify fertilizing practices, how do you modify cultivating practices so that the phosphorous stays on the fields, so it stays there and doesn’t run into the rivers and then into the lake.”
美國海洋暨太空總署(NOAA)的一位研究員表示:「春季的磷(phosphorous)會讓藻類在夏季爆長(bloom)。基於這樣的認知,我們就可創造出策略來調整(modify)施肥與農作的方法。把磷留在農田上,不會徑流到河川或湖泊。」

 

Keep nutrients on land
Laura Johnson agrees that the long-term goal must be to keep nutrients on the land. She calls for continued monitoring of farmers' land and water quality. “So that if for some reason a practice is not working as well as we think it should be, then we can change what we are doing and what we are recommending to farmers.”

Advocates for clean water want stiffer controls and greater cash incentives to encourage farmers to adopt best agricultural practices. Farmers balk at tighter regulations and recently saw a reduction in federal funds to address the issue. As the debate continues, one thing is certain. The algal problem is not going away any time soon.

乾淨用水的倡議者希望有更強硬的控制手段和金錢誘因(incentive)來鼓勵農夫採用最佳的農作方式。但農民們並不樂見(balk at . . .)更嚴格的規範,而近來投入這個問題的聯邦經費也已減少。不同看法的辯論仍會持續,但唯有一件事能確定:藻類問題在短期內還不會落幕(the problem is not going away)


Vocabulary

algae (n) 水藻,海藻XXalgal (a) 藻類的

scum (n) 殘渣;浮垢

handout (n) 分配,配發XXXXX*這個字很常見的意思是老師在教室裡發的「講義」,其語意來自於動詞片語 hand out (發送),例句:He was handing out leaflets to members of the audience. (他把傳單分給聽眾們。)

by no means (prep phr) 絕非;一點都不

runoff (n) 徑流xxxxxxxxsewage (n) 污水;污穢物

deplete (v) 耗盡xxxxxxxnutrient (n) 營養物

bloom (n) (花朵)盛開狀態;大量的出現 XXXXX*詞條algal bloom(或algae bloom)「藻華」,指藻類快速而過度增生的現象,可看Wikipedia解釋

concentration (n) 濃度 xincentive (n) 獎勵xxxxbalk at (v phr) 對. . .畏怯,止步


Check your vocabulary!

Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase from the list above. Make necessary changes. After you finish, select the text below to reveal the hidden answers.

1. Salmon populations have been severely depleted.

2. The apple trees are in full bloom.

3. The factory secretly dumped millions of gallons of raw sewage into the Ohio river.

4. The plant absorbs nutrients from the soil.

5. I balked at the prospect of spending four hours on a train with him.

6. The lake near the factory was covered with grey, foul-smelling scum.

Source:http://www.voanews.com/content/algal-overload-infects-global-waterways/1973015.html

編譯:簡嘉呈

 
 
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