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Climate Change Threatens Heat-Intolerant Species

氣候變遷對不耐熱的生物造成威脅


Photo: Johannes Foufopoulos (taken from VOA news website)

The island of Lazaros in the central Aegean Sea is home to this Agean wall lizard - one of the species examined in the study.

Ice Age reptiles offer clues to survival in a warmer world

冰河世紀的爬蟲類動物提供今天物種在氣候暖化下生存的一線生機


 最新消息

Self-study package第49期中級、中高級都上線囉!

中級自學包裹

本期中級包裹包含了多樣的內容,裡頭有著太太手機來電訊問先生可否購買物品的有趣影片;旅遊資訊簡介的小短片;美國一個小鎮於2004年實施高中生男女分班的實驗,敘述著男女分班的優點等;以及在埃及紅海海域鯊魚出沒攻擊遊客的消息,精彩的內容,不容錯過!

中高級自學包裹

熱帶雨林的砍伐可能造成瘧疾肆虐?新發明的生化烤爐,是否真的能幫助環境並達到減碳的功效呢? 環境保護和全球暖化一直是近年來重要的課題,第49期的中高級自學包裹要帶大家來練習的材料正是圍繞著這個主題的內容。一起來試試看吧!

快來做自學包裹吧

 

Advanced彭蒙惠英語12月號內容已上線

「爆紅新偶像--小賈斯汀」、「簡訊考驗中文書」寫等單元內容已經上線囉,Advanced 12月份的精彩內容,快到English Freeway線上學習吧。Advanced 2010年1月之後的內容,使用Author Plus系統,尚未有帳號的同學,先在E-freeway會員專區申請帳號喔(帳號同自學包裹,如已有自學包裹帳號的同學則不需再申請)。

每天都要收聽每日聽!

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 E-Freeway主題介紹

feature of the week

ICRT

你是不是常常覺得ICRT的英文很實用,但速度太快,讓你跟不上?你知道ICRT每天都有固定的新聞播報時間,也是非常好的學習材料?現在就來ICRT的網站瞧瞧,你會發現裡頭不但有每天的節目表,音檔,更有逐字稿可供瀏覽,讓你不管何時都可以練習你的聽說讀寫實力,現在就來試試看吧!

來看介紹 | 直接進入網站


Members Only資源介紹

Biz商用英語

近來金管會證期局為避免基金投資人「炒短線」,要求投信業者訂定短線交易相關規範。「炒短線」英文怎麼說?較接近的是swing trade,作動詞用,作名詞時譯為「擺盪式交易」,屬「短線交易」(short-term trading)的一種,也有(short) swing trading的說法,指投資人根據股票或基金的小幅走勢,頻繁買進賣出進行短線交易。想知道更多商用英語說法嗎?快試試視聽館的Biz商用英語自學軟體吧!... 放長線才能釣大魚唷!


Members Only資源介紹

【English Freeway-Writing】

Hong Kong Education City

香港的英語學習熱門網站。進入Writing的網頁可以看到豐富的寫作資源,屬於一般性質的寫作網頁。推薦學習者們去 Interactive Writing裡頭的i-Classroom裡面瞧瞧,同樣的寫作題目有分不同程度的練習,適合想要增加創意寫作能力(Creative Writing)的學習者。另外網站裡也有介紹寫作遊戲,不妨試試看!

http://efreeway.avcenter.ntu.edu.tw/freeway/writing/writing_centres.htm#2

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 館藏介紹

A Christmas Carol 小氣財神: 快樂頌

改編自狄更斯世界名著《聖誕歌聲》,原作出版以來熱銷全球,並多次改編成舞台劇、電視及電影,本片由多位傑出製作人及演員重新演繹成動人的音樂電影!曾以 【阿拉丁】、【美女與野獸】獲奧斯卡最佳原創音樂的作曲家艾倫曼肯,則為本片創作多曲動人美妙的音樂,更因此榮獲艾美獎最佳原創音樂肯定!


 英語宅急便     

Scientists are exploring the earth's ancient past for clues to how species today might respond to a warming climate and a landscape that's breaking apart.

Results of the new study suggest many species will be lost as conditions worsen - and the species which will disappear first are those that are intolerant of northern heat.

University of Michigan ecologist Johannes Foufopoulos looked at conditions in Greece 15,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age, when scores of islands formed.

"They became isolated as sea level rose," he says. "Essentially we have a system in which we have a natural process of habitat fragmentation, not by humans, but by rising sea levels."  

Foufopoulos and his colleagues studied the extinction rates for 35 reptile species on 87 islands in the northeast Mediterranean Sea. He says comparing historic fossil records with present day distribution, the researchers were able to tell which species perished and when.



Lin Jones, U-M Photo Services (taken from VOA news website)
University of Michigan vertebrate ecologist Johannes Foufopoulos with an Aegean wall lizard.

"What we find is that islands today harbor many, many, many fewer species than the neighboring mainland. So we infer basically that species that used to be there have gone extinct." Northern-dwelling species that required cool and moist conditions didn't tolerate heat very well," he adds. "These were also disproportionally quick to disappear."

In most cases reptiles disappeared on the smallest islands first, places where the habitat choices were most limited. Foufopoulos says the study provides clues to how wildlife today might respond to climate shifts and a landscape fragmented by roads and farms and buildings. "The unfortunate observation, the lessons here is that it is going to be pretty bad."

Foufopoulos says the study is more than a look back in time. It also underscores the need to conserve land for species migration, either by setting it aside or by creating wildlife corridors that can help animals adapt as conditions change.

"We absolutely need these species in order to survive because we depend on natural ecosystems to obtain our water, our food, our clean air. These services are being provided by natural species communities. We don't think about it, but our crops are pollinated by bees, for example. If we lose those bees because of degraded habitat and we've changed the climate, we won't be able to have crops."

The study appears in the January edition of American Naturalist.


Language Notes

reptile (n) 爬行動物;爬蟲類

intolerant (a) 不容忍的;不耐的

ecologist (n) 生態學家

scores (n) 大量;很多

isolated (a) 孤立的

habitat (n) 棲息地

生態學家 (ecologist) 研究一萬五千年的冰河世紀 (Ice Age) 末的希臘,以當時小島大量形成 (scores of islands) 的時空背景當成今日的借鏡。當時的陸地,因為海平面的上升 (rising sea levels) ,造成許多碎裂而孤立的 (isolated) 小島。但當時生物棲地零碎化 (habitat fragmentation)是自然形成的,不同於今日多由人類開發所造成的情況。

fossil (n) 化石

distribution (n) 分佈狀態;分發

perish (v) 死亡

生態學家 Foufopoulos 研究了地中海東北邊 (northeast Mediterranean Sea) 的87個島嶼,還有島上的35種爬蟲類動物。他把這些爬蟲類的化石紀錄 (fossil records) 與今日的分佈狀況 (present day distribution) 比較。判斷出哪些物種已經滅絕了 (perished),還有其消失的時間。

harbor (v) 庇護;藏匿;收養(動物等)

disproportionally (adv) 不相稱地;不均衡地

研究的結果發現,跟鄰近陸塊上 (neighboring mainland) 的物種比較,島嶼上的物種數量呈現巨幅的減少。棲息在北邊的物種並不耐熱,他們需要涼爽而潮濕的環境 (cool and moist conditions),這些物種在小島上消失的速度是超乎常態的 (disproportionally)。因為島嶼越小,可供物種棲息的選擇也相對受限 (habitat choices were most limited),物種消失的速度也較為快速。Foufopoulos 認為,這樣的研究可以反照出今天在人為因素所導致的地景碎裂化的情況之下,如道路、農田、城市建築 (a landscape fragmented by roads and farms and buildings),物種對於氣候變遷的反應。

underscore (v) 強調;突現

conserve (v) 保護;保存;保藏

corridor (n) 走廊,走道

degrade (v) 降低,削弱(尤指質量)

Foufopoulos 認為這樣的研究不只是對過去世界的觀察 (a look back in time),這研究結果凸顯的是 (underscores) 今日保護生物遷移時 (species migration) 所必經區域的重要性,一個作法是把遷移要道保留出來,另一方法是建立生物廊道 (wildlife corridors)。當生存環境發生變化的時候,這樣有助於生物適應。Foufopoulos 最後也指出生態圈 (ecosystems) 的概念。人類只是生態系統裡的一份子,許多人類生存所必須的條件也是由自然界的物種社群 (natural species communities) 提供。如果人類破壞了生態系統的一環,最後也將自食惡果。

 


Let's Give it a Try!

Fill in the blanks with one of the words in the list above.

The grassland is an important __________ for many wild flowers.

Our coach was escorted by a __________ of policemen.

The report __________ the importance of childhood immunizations.

We must __________ our woodlands for future generations.

Police say that last week's protest was an __________ incident.

 

Select the area between the two arrows to reveal the answers:

--> habitat; score; underscores, conserve; isolated <--

 
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