台大外語教學暨資源中心英語學習報

 

Oral Cancer Caused by HPV Soars in Developed Countries

乳禿病毒致口腔癌病案在已開發國家中攀升

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HPV-caused oral cancer has been on the rise and mostly affects men.

乳禿病毒引起男性口腔癌病例持續增加。


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自學包裹中級:72期、中高級:79期

中級:72期

聽聽輕鬆愉快的音樂就能減輕心理的傷痛嗎? 最新研究結果可能和我們預期的相反。由加州大學柏克萊分校的研究顯示,傷心的心情必須藉由聆聽藍調或是曲調較沉重的音樂才能恢復心情上的平靜以及康復。除了音樂之外,觀看悲傷的電影或是閱讀反映出心情的小說,也能帶來愉悅。詳情請看本期中級自學包裹72期內容。

中高級:79期

眼球追蹤技術被運用的越來越廣泛了,這個技術能夠讓你在智慧型手機以及平板電腦,輕鬆下達指令,瀏覽網頁,甚至玩線上遊戲。不過你可能不知道這個技術還能夠協助您購物。另一方面還能夠降低交通事故,沒錯,這項技術可以幫助駕駛的行車安全喔! 除此之外,就連身障人士也受惠,能夠有效地增進他們的行動能力,還有更多...,詳情請看本其中高級包裹內容。

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dotsub是個可以提供各類主題而擁有龐大影片的資料庫,學習者可以依照個人需求搜尋到相關的影片內容,並且依照影片的標示說明,清楚知道影片的屬性、分類、長度、是否有被翻譯、或是否提供中文或英文或其他語言的字幕,也可以是老師的教學資源!!

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Road to IELTS

"Road to IELTS"一共有12個主題,每一個主題裡面有都有六個練習區塊,其中包含了(Words, Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing 1 and Writing 2)。今天我們就先進入"Environment"這個單元中去看看,這套課程要怎麼讓我們怎麼慢慢對IELTS駕輕就熟。!......快來看介紹吧!


BBC: Skillswise

這個網站用電話留言與電影資訊等日常生活常見的情境為例,教你如何從中聽中重要的訊息,包含了全方位的學習,針對閱讀、文法、聽力、寫作、口說、簡報等技巧,提供相關的影音檔以及線上練習題,豐富的資源,必定可讓您有效增進英文能力。 http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/english

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This Official Guide to the TOEFL Test is the best, most reliable guide to the test that is used around the world to assess foreign applicants to U.S. and Canadian universities for English proficiency. It includes real TOEFL questions for practice, as well as explanations of every section of the test and information on what is expected for every speaking and writing task.


 英語宅急便     

Carol Pearson

June 26, 2013

WASHINGTON — The human papillomavirus, or HPV, is commonly associated with sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer. So, when the well-known actor Michael Douglas implied that his throat cancer was caused by HPV, contracted through oral sex, the news made headlines around the world. HPV-caused oral cancer has been on the rise and mostly affects men.

The human papillomavirus, HPV, is actually many different viruses. One particular strain causes oral cancer, and doctors say the number of cases is reaching epidemic levels. Most of the victims are men who live in developed countries.  

“There are almost about 20 million people in the US who have been infected and have this virus. Most of them, however, are not related to that particular HPV16 virus which is responsible for oropharyngeal cancer,” said Dr. Mumtaz Khan, a head and neck specialist at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio.

Yet Khan says HPV16-related cancer is reaching epidemic levels.

“The rate of oral oropharyngeal cancer related to HPV has significantly risen in the last two decades. I can give you an example of several studies quoting tonsil cancers to be about 28 percent related to HPV back in the 80’s, and now it’s up to 68-80 percent,” Khan said.

Right now there is no way to screen for oral cancer, so Khan says patients need to monitor themselves regularly.

"People should look for anything which is unusual, atypical, something new that is persisting, not going away, like a lump in the neck, a sore in the mouth, difficulty swallowing, change in voice," Khan said.

Khan says this type of cancer is very curable. But the infection can be prevented. HPV16 is one of the viruses targeted by the HPV vaccine. Khan says as the vaccine becomes more widely used, it's likely there will be fewer cases of this type of oral cancer.

In a recent study, however, the number of parents in the US who indicated they would not vaccinate their daughters against HPV increased from 40 to 44 percent. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also recommends that boys be vaccinated against HPV.

In one promising discovery, researchers at the US National Cancer Institute said antibodies against the human papillomavirus may help identify those at risk for HPV-related oral cancer.  Although the findings are preliminary, one day a simple blood test might be able to identify patients at risk.


Language Notes

associate (v) 把 . . . 聯想在一起

sexually transmitted infections (n phr) 性傳染病 XXXXX*另一個「性病」常見的詞是 sexually transmitted disease,常縮寫為STD

contract (v) 感染 XXXXX*當動詞用,重音擺後,,有「感染」和「收縮」的意思;作名詞時,重音在前,,意思是「合約」

on the rise (prep phr) 在上升,在增加

strain (n) 品種

epidemic (n) 流行病

人類乳突病毒 (the human papillomavirus) 通常是和性傳播疾病 (sexually transmitted infiections) 和子宮頸癌 (cervical cancer) 聯想在一塊 (associated with . . . ),所以知名男星麥克道格拉斯說他的喉癌 (throat cancer) 是因為口交而感染了人類乳禿病毒所導致的,這在國際間占據不少頭條版面 (made headlines around the world)。

人類乳禿病毒有很多種,其中一種特定的病毒株 (one particular strain) 會引發口腔癌。醫生認為,病例的數量已達流行病 (epidemic) 程度,最受影響的病患多是已開發國家的男性。

specialist (n) 專科醫生

tonsil (n) 扁桃腺

atypical (a) 非典型的

persisting (a) 持續不斷的

頭頸部的專科醫師 (specialist) Dr. Mumtaz Khan 的指出,美國約有兩千萬人感染人類乳禿病毒。雖然大多數不是主要引起 (responsible for . . .) 口咽癌 (oropharyngeal cancer) 的HPV16型病毒,但與HPV16有關的癌症病例已達流行病程度。在過去二十年間,人類乳禿病毒有關的口咽癌比例明顯上升,他引用 (quoting) 扁桃腺癌 (tonsil cancers) 的數據,在80年代時,與人類乳禿病毒相關的病例比約占28%,但現已達60到80%。

目前還沒有篩檢出 (screen for) 口腔癌的方法,但醫師建議病患可以定期的自我檢測 (moniter themselves regularly),看看是否有異常持續的狀態 (atypical;persisting),像是頸部硬塊 (lump), 口腔有潰瘍 (sore),吞嚥困難 (difficulty swallowing),聲音改變等。

indicate (v) 指示;指出

vaccinate (v) 接種疫苗 XXXXX*搭配介係詞 against 使用,表示接種「對抗某種傳染病的疫苗」

preliminary (a) 初步的

at risk (prep phr) 有危險,冒風險

Dr. Mumtaz Khan 指出,雖然這類癌症是可治癒的 (curable),但感染是可以避免的,HPV16型病毒正是HPV疫苗 (vaccine) 的標的之一。但最近的研究顯示,在美國的父母表示 (indicated) 不願讓女兒接種抗 HPV 病毒疫苗 (vaccinate . . . against . . .) 的比率從40%增加到44%。

美國國家癌症研究機構做出令人期待的發現 (promising discovery),人類乳禿病毒的抗體 (antibodies) 可能可以用來識別出會因 HPV 罹口腔癌 (HPV-related oral cancer) 的高風險群 (those at risk for . . .)。雖然只是初步 (preliminary) 發現 ,但將來也許只要驗血 (blood test) 就可以辨識出高罹癌風險的病人。


Check your vocabulary!

Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase from the list above. Make necessary changes. After you finish, select the text below to reveal the hidden answers.

1. The architect's plans are still in the preliminary stages.

2. A particularly hardy strain of the virus can make you ill for over a week.

3. Alcohol abuse has reached epidemic proportions in this country.

4. All children should be vaccinated against measles.

5. They associate turkey with Thanksgiving.

6. He contracted the disease through an insect bite.


Source:http://www.voanews.com/content/oral-cancer-hpv/1690106.html

編譯:簡嘉呈

 
 
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