No. 027  Jun. 2017
 
   
   
   
   

 

省思醒語
FOOD FOR THOUGHT
 

Tell the readers a story! Because without a story, you are merely using words to prove you can string them together in logical sentences.

~ Anne McCaffrey
 

Anne McCaffrey (1926 –2011) was an American-born Irish writer, best known for her Dragonriders of Pern series. During McCaffrey's 46-year career as a writer, she won Hugo and Nebula Awards. Her book The White Dragon became one of the first science-fiction novels to appear on the New York Times Best Seller list.

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知識饗宴
SPOTLIGHT
 

推薦文章:

Getting Published in Academic Journals: Navigating the Publication Process by Paltridge, B. & Starfield, S.

推薦人:  簡士捷(本中心教師)

 

評語:

研究生和新手研究者在英文學術期刊上的發表過程面臨著巨大的壓力,本書的目的不僅在闡明與撰寫英文出版有關的問題和困境,還提供解決方案和建議,幫助他們成功參與學術話語界。Paltridge和Starfield從他們在英文學術期刊上發表論文的經驗、編輯學術期刊與指導自己的研究生以及審查他人的論文撰寫了此本書。

本書包括五個章節,第一章“學術期刊寫作”介紹了研究生和新手研究者在開始撰寫出版刊物之前需要瞭解的重要內容,Paltridge和Starfield指出,一個可接受的論文代表創造新知識,或至少以創造性的方式解釋現有知識。另外,Paltridge和Starfield強調為特定讀者寫作的重要性,因為讀者有一定的期待和他們先備的知識會影響到寫作的內容。

在第二章“決定哪本學術期刊”中,Paltridge和Starfield在選擇學術期刊時提出了一些重要因素,包括學術期刊的立場、目標、方向和期待。另外,投稿後被拒絕有可能是普遍、正常和頻繁的,鼓勵研究生不要氣餒;相反的,他們需要想想名單上下一本可能投稿的學術期刊。

在第三章“將您的文章與讀者聯繫起來”中,P​​altridge和Starfield討論了一些常見問題,並提供了關於作者如何使他們撰寫的論文儘可能對讀者友善的建議,在此情況下,選擇適當的關鍵字、撰寫好的且有吸引力的標題與撰寫成功的摘要是使論文更容易閱讀的重要因素。此外,最重要的是仔細閱讀並遵循期刊的指導方針,例如期刊論文的結構、要求的長度、格式和參考風格等。Paltridge和Starfield另外還指出研究論文摘要、介紹和討論部分的重要性,他們以John Swales (1990)的文章為例,闡述了這些部分研究論文的修辭結構和典型組織,以幫助研究生寫出更好且具有結構的論文,滿足讀者的期待。

第四章著重於“瞭解同儕審查流程”,Paltridge和Starfield從本章開始,解釋同儕審查過程,其中包括獲得專家意見及其論文是否符合目標期刊要求的判斷,以及論文是否能將其領域帶往更進一步的發展,為現有文獻作出貢獻。Paltridge和Starfield隨後指出編輯和審稿者在期刊上的各種任務和責任。本章還闡述了拒絕的各種常見原因,如論文未能與國際讀者做聯結。

在收尾章“閱讀審稿者報告和解決他們的疑慮”中,Paltridge和Starfield討論了研究生通常面臨的兩個重要問題:如何回應審稿者的評論以及如何因應被拒絕。主要的策略是需瞭解審稿者的意見要求做什麼,並以禮貌性的語氣對所有審稿者的意見和建議做出明確的回應。如被拒絕,Paltridge和Starfield呼籲不要放棄,之後投稿至另一本期刊,研究生可以利用審稿者的反饋和意見,重新修改以提高文章的質量。最後Paltridge和Starfield特別針對非英語母語人士撰寫的論文因語言所引起的拒絕,解決方案可包括尋求學術同儕的幫助,並加入相關寫作社群。

總而言之,本書揭示了英文學術出版的過程,特別是針對研究生和新手研究者,他們正處於學術出版的早期階段,並希望能更瞭解學術期刊論文的發表。此外,本書也是EAP和第二語言寫作領域的教師和從業人員在課程教學上相當實用的教材與補充資料。

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活動訊息
NEWS & aNNOUNCEMENT

【3MT】2017三分鐘英語簡報競賽 活動回顧


【3MT】2017三分鐘英語簡報競賽 活動回顧

2017 3MT 三分鐘英語學術簡報競賽已於5月25日圓滿結束!
(自由時報特別刊登本次活動成果!)

  • 首獎:胡德倫 (NTU, Department of Geography)
  • 貳獎:林家民 (NTU, Department of Forestry and Resource Conservation)
  • 參獎:嚴萬軒 (NTNU, Department of Technology Application and Human Resource Development)
  • 觀眾票選獎:韓孟潔 (NTU, Department of Environmental Engineerin
  • 參加獎:
    陳以安 (NTU, Department of Environmental Engineering)
    林姚鴻 (NTUST, MBA)
    董建祺 (NTUST, MBA)
    吳宗明 (NTNU, Department of English)
    曾子家 (NTU, Department of Biomedical Electronic and Bioinformatics)
    李金輝 (NTUST, Department of Industrial Management)
    甘湘恩 (NTU, Department of Chemistry)
    簡宇泰 (NTU, Department of Information Management)
The third annual NTU Three-Minute Thesis competition was held this year on May 25, 2017.  Unlike previous years, the third annual competition was promoted extramurally with invitations to National Taiwan Normal University and National Taiwan University of Science & Technology.  The Academic Writing Education Center (AWEC), which has produced the event each year, made repeated visits to all three competing campuses to offer information seminars, training workshops and promotional materials.  The AWEC also steadily engaged and encouraged administrators, faculty, and students at all three universities to participate in the event by providing open access to information and reliable and equal assistance to all participating students. This endeavor resulted in highly satisfactory results. Nearly 150 students from all three universities submitted videos in the preliminary round, and the twelve excellent finalists represented not only the three institutions but a diverse array of disciplines.  Most surprising was the attendance on this night of the event of nearly 500 audience, who filled the lecture hall to standing-room capacity, and which included families, friends, professors, students and special guests.  In the end, the Social Sciences prevailed with all three winners (from Geography, Forestry, and Business Administration) delivering heartfelt and stimulating orations of their research ideas.  
 

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學生作品
Sample Script

學生:臨醫所 碩士班學生
作品標題:A Comparison Between Chinese and Western Medicine
課程名稱:英文寫作基礎
學期:105-1
任課教師: 陳巧玲老師

老師說明:
要如何培養學生的學術寫作能力呢? 最有效的方法就是將學術寫作的技巧與學生的專業知識結合。以學生的主修學科做為寫作的題材,搭配適當的寫作架構,不但能幫助學生活用寫作課程所學到的技巧,同時也能幫助他們分析整理所學到的專業知識,進而深化學習。英文寫作基礎課,就是希望能幫助學生打穩學術寫作的基礎,包含學術單字、文法與文章架構等,並透過閱讀與同儕互評等活動,培養批判思考與閱讀能力,為日後學術研究之路做好準備。

學生寫作作品:
A Comparison Between Chinese and Western Medicine
Thousands of years ago, ancient civilizations all over the world developed their own medicine to treat various diseases. Among these diverse approaches, Chinese and Western medicine are the two that remain influential. On the one hand, Western medicine originated from religious practice, natural therapy, and witchcraft. As time went by, scholars of different academic backgrounds, such as anatomy, physiology, histology, and biology, gradually used science, rather than ascriptions to curses of unknown powers, to solve human disease puzzles. On the other hand, Chinese medicine has developed in a more mysterious way. It was established on the basis of Qi and Blood, Yin and Yang, and meridian. Even without any knowledge of modern medicine, Chinese medicine still heals millions of patients in a different way. In addition to their different development histories, Western medicine and Chinese medicine are still distinct from each other in three ways.

First, Western and Chinese medicine diagnose diseases differently. In Western medicine, all diseases are categorized according to various types of physiopathology. For instance, influenza is an infectious disease that is attributed to the influenza virus, and stroke occurs when there is an inadequate blood supply to the brain parenchyma due to vascular abnormalities. In addition, the diagnostic criteria for each disease are universalized and standardized. All qualified practitioners can confirm the diagnosis of ischemic stroke with subjective symptoms, physical examinations, and CT/MRI images. However, the diagnostic methods of Chinese medicine largely depend on “observation, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and palpation.” (Diagnosing Methods, n.d.) Chinese medicine assumes that diseases are the result of an imbalance in Yin/Yang and Qi/Blood. As a result, although the disease entities are different, the imbalance that underlies disorders may be similar (Sun et al., 2013). In addition, the most mysterious or abstruse secret of Chinese medicine is the fact that doctors’ diagnoses may be diverse and may not be easily validated by modern science (Fontanarosa & Lundberg, 1998). Furthermore, in contrast to Western medicine, there are few auxiliary tests in Chinese medicine. As a result, each illness may not be diagnosed universally and consistently (Yuan & Lin, 2000), which slows down the global application of Chinese medicine.

Second, Chinese and Western medicine treat patients with dissimilar drugs. Drugs used in Western medicine are developed based on modern pharmaceutical technologies and knowledge of translational medicine. It is estimated that about 15 to 20 new drugs are approved each year. On the other hand, most of the medications that are commonly used within the practice of Chinese medicine, such as ginseng, angelica, and cordyceps, come from natural compounds. Even though these herbal medicines may be harmless and even beneficial (Luo, Xu, & Chen, 2013), herbal prescriptions are less innovative than the preparations that are available through the pharmaceutical industries. Western doctors devote themselves to developing medications with better efficacy and fewer side effects. An example is cancer treatment. Current treatment ideas and guidelines are totally different from those that were applied a century ago. However, in Chinese medicine, the concepts and medications are virtually similar, which means that Chinese medicine may not progress as rapidly as Western medicine.

Finally, the potential for development in Chinese and Western medicine is different. Thousands of translational research and clinical trials for Western medicine are undertaken every year all over the world. As a result, Western medicine progresses bit by bit day by day. However, there are many limitations that prevent Chinese medicine from evolving as frequently as Western medicine, including a lack of consistency, universal diagnostic criteria, and validated models that prevent Chinese medicine from large-scale investigations. In the era of evidence-based medicine, Chinese medicine will not be accepted universally without definite and solid evidence.

In summary, it is not surprising that different medicines that have emerged from various cultures and historical backgrounds have distinctive development tracks. Though Western medicine seems to be superior to Chinese medicine in the nature of its diagnostic methods, treatment modalities, and future prospects, it is not perfect. If the essence of Chinese medicine can be refined, it will be a powerful weapon for doctors to use in the fight against diseases and to restore patients’ health. It does not matter which is better; only the efficacy is important.

References
Diagnosing methods of Chinese medicine (n.d.) CRIENGLISH. Retrieved from http://english.cri.cn/7586/2013/10/31/2001s795370.htm
Fontanarosa, P., & Lundberg, G. (1998). Alternative medicine meets science. JAMA., 280(18), 1618–9.
Luo, J., Xu, H., & Chen, K.-J. (2013). Potential benefits of Chinese herbal medicine for elderly patients with cardiovascular diseases. Journal of Geriatr Cardiol, 10(4), 305–309.
Sun, D., Li, S., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Mei, R., & Yang, M. (2013). Differences in the origin of philosophy between Chinese medicine and western medicine: Exploration of the holistic advantages of Chinese medicine. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, 19(9), 706–711.
Yuan, R., & Lin, Y. (2000). Traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 86(2), 191–198.

 
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精彩回顧
RECAP
 
錯過了中心演講活動?
我們特別設立了本專欄,讓錯過中心演講的您,也能一睹演講的精闢內容。
 
演講摘寫
講題:How to handle presentation questions
講員:蔡君彞 (臺大國際事務處)
日期:2017/03/24 (五) 13:00-14:30
整理:王怡心

 

報告或演講最後的提問往往是報告與演講者害怕與認為無法掌控的部分。因此此次演講得講者從自己參加會議的經驗出發,分享報告後的提問如何回應。

一開始講者就指出即便是以英語為母語人士的美國人,也認為上台報告非常可怕。但是學術會議卻是少數可以讓研究有對話,而非獨自閉門造車的場合。而提問時間則是讓研究熱度可以持續維持與討論的重要時間,因此應珍惜研討會中少數可以討論的時間。因此今天演講內容主要包含幾個部分,首先會先說明報告一般可能容易有的問題,接下來就會繼續說明一般報告會提出的問題以及如何應對。最後說明如何問好的問題反饋給報告者。

演講之前,其實可以先預設問題。因為基本上演講以及研究就是一個問與答的過程。因此建議花相同力氣準備演講內容以及問與答部分。在準備好預設問題之後,就可以先將問題分類,且準備簡明扼要的答案。而成功簡報的要素其實就是提供新資訊、扭轉觀眾舊有想法以及覺得認同演講者的看法更甚至想直接照演講者的講法行動。

其實聽眾提出的問題有跡可循,而且可以分類。一般來說問題類型分為以下幾種:
1. 聽不懂而問的問題:可能因為語言障礙或是演講者使用的詞彙比較少見所致。
2. 跟演講內容無關:可能聽眾因為錯失一些演講內容而誤導演講內容或是有自己想法想發表所提出的問題。
3. 太過基本的問題:可能是外行人提出的問題。
4. 只是想說明想法的問題:可能聽眾想發表自己的想法,因此問了根本不是問題的問題。
5. 問題非常長,幾個問題包裝成一個問題。
6. 態度不佳且不懷好意的問題:可能有點攻擊性意味的問題。
7. 很難回答的問題:問題很好,只是很難簡單地回答。

針對上述的問題,此次演講者提出了一些可行的應對方式如下:
1. 聽不懂而問的問題:請他重述問題,但換句話說或是反問他是不是哪個意思。
2. 跟演講內容無關:基本上聽眾所有的問題都要回應,如果可以,就簡短說明獲回應,但如果回答要花很多時間,可以有禮貌跟他說會議結束後再說。
3. 太基本的問題:雖然可能是外行人提出的問題,但千萬不要讓對方覺得他很笨或是羞辱的感覺,應正面、嚴肅、快速的回答。
4. 只是想說明想法的問題:這類問題應該根本不是問題。不過大型會議很容易發生,因為很多聽眾其實有很多看法想說。因此可以先禮貌地打斷他,跟他說讓其他觀眾先提問,然後問答時間結束前再留時間給他講。
5. 問題非常長,幾個問題包裝成一個問題的問題:記者會很容易發生,可以先拆解問題後再一一回答或挑重點回答。
6. 態度不佳且不懷好意的問題:遇到類這樣攻擊性的問題要先冷靜情緒。盡量就問題本身核心回答,不要讓提問者覺得他是錯的。把他攻擊性的部分忽略,就本質回答,且不要再重複一次他攻擊的地方。
7. 很難回答的問題:問題很好,但可能不知道怎麼快速且完整地回答。因此可以回應現在因為無法回答,但會議結束之後,可以將聯絡資料再給對方再繼續討論。如果問到無法回答的是核心問題,而且可能研究有疏失,就承認有疏失,但是可以在跟他多說一點其他可能聽眾感興趣的事。

「在回答上,儘可能表達認真對待問題的態度,而且確實聽懂問題再回答,應答也應誠實、簡要、有禮。回答前講者應先換句話重述提問者的問題,因為除了可以確認有確實聽懂問題之外,也可以將問題導向對自己有利的方向並爭取反應時間。如果提問者攻擊性比較強,也儘量避免默認提問者的質疑或直接反駁提問者的問題。最後讓提問者滿意,但不膠著於單一提問者的問題上,以便兼顧其他聽眾的興趣是回答問題最好的方式。最後,講者也提醒大家,在當好的應答者之外,當好的提問者也很重要。提問人可將自己想成訪談節目的主持人,不應只專注於自己有興趣的部分提問,而應代替現場觀眾問與講題相關的大問題,如此,才能使報告者與聽眾在經過這場演講後,都能有滿滿的收穫。這些回答問題的經驗與方式,已有一些書籍整理歸納,例如:擔任美國多家知名企業總裁的演說教練的Jerry Weissman先生,即曾出版相關書籍,提供大家參考。

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